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# ep092 WIG-Sea Launch project

Exact scale 1/200, lenght 15 and 3/4 inches complex model of Ekranoplane-Sea launch project of designer

E.A. AFRAMEEV, Cand.Tech.Sciences.
(Central Science research Institute named after Krylov) Ekranoplane VKS 1 step Orbital (2) step Full flight weight, t 750 (with VKS) 300 (about 2 items) 100 Weight of useful loading, t 6 Impellent installation TRD 6х 30-35 hardware 4 PVRD 2 PVRD and 2 ZHRD Power installation of a low speed 2 high-speed diesel engines Speed of movement, km/h: In flight 550-600 Low speed 25

It is known, that start of space vehicles in equatorial breadthes allows to lower considerably power inputs on a conclusion in space of useful loading. For example, at carry of space starts of Russia from high breadthes where its(her) overland cosmodromes are located, in areas of equator the size of useful loading deduced(removed) by the same booster rockets increases in 1,7-2 times. The given circumstance - the serious precondition for use of the World ocean in interests of development of perspective space systems. An example of such use - successfully functioning international sea floating space-rocket complex Sea Launch (Russia, the USA, Ukraine, Norway). It(he) is intended for starts of nonrecoverable rockets-carriers(-bearers), startuyushchikh in vertical position.
However experts connect the greatest hopes for significant reduction in price of space starts with creation of completely returned reusable aerospace planes (VKS). Their vertical start from a surface of ocean is possible(probable) with similar Sea Launch platforms or special courts(vessels). At the same time technically justified scheme(plan) of their returning there is a horizontal landing(planting) to a corresponding(meeting) overland landing strip that it is difficult to provide in equatorial breadthes.In these conditions practically unique variant of realization horizontal and start and landing(planting) of reusable space vehicles (MKA) is connected with use ekranoplanov (WIG - wing-in-ground craft) as a разгонно-accepting step for start and reception VKS. Usually in similar projects are considered(examined) ekranoplany with the big take-off weight (from 1500 up to 2000 and aerospace planes in weight 600 - 800 t. But their creation - business of the remote prospect. Meanwhile, the decision of a problem of horizontal start and landing(planting) from a surface of ocean can be realized much earlier on the basis of ekranoplanov by weight up to 750 t and VKS in weight up to 300 t. As show lead design, theoretical and experimental researches, system of horizontal sea start and landing(planting) MKA with use ekranoplanov (WSL - WIG Sea Launch) it is capable to provide delivery of useful loading on low, including polar and equatorial orbits. The infrastructure of system WSL should include two parts - ground and sea. Following components enter into the first:
- Port-base of courts(vessels) with the terminal for parking and loading of a transport vessel of-supplier VKS, ekranoplanov and courts(vessels) of maintenance, and also монтажно-proving ground;
- The transport system intended for delivery of components VKS, the fuel, useful loading from manufacturers in port-base of system WSL;
- ìáºÑ¼¡«-space means traektornykh telemeasurements, management of flights, navigating and hydrometeorological maintenance.
The sea infrastructure assumes following elements:
- The vessel-supplier VKS equipped by means of overload VKS on ekranoplan and carrying out of finishing prestarting procedures;
- جÓá¡«»½á¡-разгонщик-inspector VKS;
- Vessels of maintenance of system WSL.
During carrying out of starts of space vehicles a vessel-supplier VKS, vessels of maintenance and ekranoplan are put forward in area of start where prestarting preparation VKS comes to the end.
Directly ahead of start overload VKS on ekranoplan and refuelling by their fuel is made. Then rise ekranoplana with VKS onboard is carried out. At achievement of necessary speed of movement there is a start of engines and branch VKS. In case of use two-level VKS after division of steps at height about 30000 m the fulfilled step makes landing(planting) on flying ekranoplan and then the-supplier is overloaded on a vessel. Landing(planting) on flying ekranoplan and the most orbital step is similarly made at its(her) returning then its(her) new start is possible(probable). Joining of steps VKS and ekranoplana is carried out after equalizing their speeds (vertical joining at zero relative speed) by means of special stykovochnykh units-ловителей. In view of the additional speed received due to equatorial start, initial circular speed VKS of the order of 600 km/s is provided. By estimations of researchers, owing to use of the экраноплана-inspector-разгонщика probably increase in useful loading VKS at 30-40 %.
Side benefit of the given scheme(plan) that impellent installations VKS put into operation on subsonic speeds which are sufficient for start of direct-flow propulsion jet engines (PVRD), being mid-flight on all atmospheric site of flight VKS. Use PVRD instead of turbojets (TRD) allows to lower considerably weight of impellent installation VKS, to simplify its(her) design, to raise(increase) reliability of work.

Besides the economy of fuel for VKS in a range of speeds up to 150 km/s is reached(achieved)., that enables to increase weight of useful loading. The weight chassis VKS decreases also.
Ekranoplan it is executed under the scheme(plan) " a compound wing " with two cases-fuselages to similarly courts(vessels) katamarannogo type. In it(him) nosovoj parts are located the engines, departing which gas jets at rise ekranoplana and during rise-landing(-planting) VKS go special deflektorami under the central wing, creating that ekranoplanu additional elevating force and not influencing on VKS. It(he) is capable to carry out long movement on water in vodoizmeshchayushchem a mode.
VKS settles down on the central wing. For simplification of a withdrawal and approach VKS the tail part ekranoplana is executed cutting, with double vertical plumage.
The aerospace plane of development of Military engineering-space university of a name of A.F.Mozhajskogo represents the two-level aerospace system consisting of the piloted supersonic plane (razgonnoj steps) and a piloted orbital step with a compartment for accommodation of the useful loading which were put into an orbit. Aerodynamic scheme(plan) VKS - a hang-glider.
At designing glider VKS the special attention was given as integration of a wing, a fuselage and impellent installations of the plane razgonshchika and to an orbital step, and a relative positioning of steps. The form of the plane provides accommodation of the second step in poluzatoplennom position from below.
Owing to such configuration the opportunity of simultaneous work of impellent installations of both steps directly from start is provided, that considerably raises(increases) tyagovooruzhennost a complex on an initial site of flight. Besides the general(common) frontal resistance due to reduction of a surface of friction and decrease(reduction) in inductive resistance of elements of a design decreases, and also integrated thermal streams on hypersound speeds of flight decrease.
The bottom position of the second step allows to simplify considerably a complex montazhno-стыковочного the equipment for prestarting preparation VKS as disappears need(requirement) for the powerful elevating cranes necessary for installation of the second step. Joining of steps VKS can be made "nadviganiem" razgonnoj steps on an orbital step with the subsequent rise of last in a niche of a fuselage razgonnoj steps. Such operation is possible(probable) on a vessel-supplier VKS or even on the экраноплане-разгонщике-inspector directly in the sea.
Creation VKS in the form of one step in weight up to 300 t with liquid jet engines is in the long term possible(probable). In aerodynamics of joint flight were investigated(researched) first of all influence established(installed) on the central wing VKS , change of its(his) characteristics VKS during branch from ekranoplana (vertical joining and undocking) and sufficiency of draft energoustanovki ekranoplana for maintenance of flight with VKS onboard.
Tests of a complex " ekranoplan - VKS " in the joined condition in a wind tunnel have shown, that installation VKS on ekrapoplan leads insignificant (the order of 5 %) to falling of factor of elevating force ekranoplana in a working range of corners of attack and heights of its(his) movement above a spreading surface. The factor of resistance which increase can make up to 25-30 % much more essentially changes. The general(common) aerodynamic quality of all system Accordingly decreases. Thus falling of quality at small heights of flight above the screen rather is less.
In view of 2 - 2,5-fold reservation of draft ekranoplana in a mode of flight, it(he) energoustanovka always is provided with functioning a complex.
Presence slot-hole channels between bottom surface VKS and the top surface of the central wing ekranoplana and a mutual aerodynamic interference of their separate constructive elements cause features of flight VKS close ekranoplana. So, on small removals(distances) from ekranoplana elevating force VKS is great enough owing to "screen" effect, however at continuation of removal(distance) "failure" on elevating force as in an initial stage of branch falling of factor of elevating force is not compensated by increase in speed VKS takes place.
The factor of force of resistance VKS essentially depends on a relative positioning of power installation ekranoplana and VKS. At small removals(distances) of the last the factor of resistance decreases both due to screen effect, and because of braking a stream in a vortical trace of engines ekranoplana.
Results of experiments on rise and landing(planting) of flying devices on moving ekranoplan, received at the flight stand both by means of tool measurements, and by estimations of the pilot-verifier, confirm an opportunity of management with joint movement ekranoplana and the flying device at all stages of this process. The most complex(difficult) for the pilot is management VKS on height above ekranoplanom, demanding knowledge enough exact values of this height.
Raised(Increased) inertsionnost heavy ekranoplanov at maneuvering at the rate forces to deduce(remove) beforehand it(him) on the set line of rectilinear movement and actively to operate only longitudinal speed. The height of flight ekranoplana at landing(planting) VKS should be stabilized rigidly enough. In this case rapproachement VKS and ekranoplana on height and indemnification of lateral displacement will occur(happen) at active role VKS, and their rapproachement in a longitudinal plane can be corrected by maneuvering by speed ekranoplana.
For management of joint movement of devices at joining the multivariate digital system of automatic control will be used.
The most suitable method of reception of the information on parameters of relative linear and angular movement of two flying krylevykh devices - use of digital television optical navigating system. Accommodation on a deck ekranoplana videocameras of an infra-red range will allow to enter continuously into computer system of processing consecutive entrance images with the high sanction. Thus at the closing stage of rapproachement at reduction of relative height VKS up to 5 m accuracy of definition of its(his) relative position on horizontal displacement and on relative height of the order of 10 sm, and by angular position - the order 20 minutes is provided
At the final stage of joining the additional agency in a contour of management of relative movement - the opened channel of management of local moving stykovochnogo unit ekranoplana on its(his) landing deck joins.
The technical realizability of project WIG Sea Launch urgently demands carrying out of an estimation of its(his) economic feasibility and perspectivity.

 Heavy ekranoplany and reusable space vehicles: a perspective tandem

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This product was added to our catalog on Monday 08 January, 2007.